Monday, 29 August 2016


It is a natural occurring compound that is ubiquitous in nature. Nothing is as refreshing as taking a bottle of chilled water after a hectic day. You may be to conversant with water thereby neglecting it’s components. As big as it may appear, it can be isolated into molecules. Each molecule is simply made of two elements: Hydrogen and Oxygen in the ratio of 1:2 respectively. By weight, it consists of 11.1888% Hydrogen and 88.812% Oxygen, if and only if it is pure.
Human life has been under threat since the existence of man on earth. Majority of the threat comes from what we consume. Majority of what we consume is water or water-related either in carbonated drinks, caffeinated drinks, or any drink at all.
To this effect, a lot of organisations like WHO, UNICEF, Governmental and Non Governmental Agencies have come up with some standards to ensure that the water we take in is fit for the body.
You may say “I get my water from the public supply system hence I’m covered”. Yes are covered but not totally covered. Why? Although the water from the public supply is usually treated with Chlorine or other disinfectants (Fluorine in rare cases), yet as it travels along the distribution channels (systems), it corrodes the pipe (if it is made of Iron or Lead) in which it flows through. At some points, the pipes may burst or have some leakages hence carrying along some contaminants that usually dissolve in it. But still it may still appear colourless. It will be disastrous consuming such water as Lead and Iron tend to accumulate with time in the body causing Lead poisoning or Iron poisoning as the case may be. This will in turn lead to heart failures and other health challenges which if not treated medically will lead to untimely death. However nowadays, PVC pipes are fast replacing the easily corrodible Iron and Lead pipes and it is a cheaper technology than the former.
Water by nature, apart from being ubiquitous, is a universal solvent. This makes it possible for it to dissolve as many water-soluble salts, ions or molecules that comes its way as possible. That is why in same places, the water is hard (does not easily form lather with soap), while in others it is soft. Water becomes hard when it dissolves some Calcium or Magnesium compounds especially in limestone regions. The degree of the concentration of these compounds determines the hardness of this water which in turn determines it’s economic value. Water that is too hard cannot be used for any useful household purpose because it is ‘sticky’ when felt in-between fingers. It wastes lather. It has no economic value.
Naturally, it is available on the surface and sub-surface. It follows a cycle called ‘THE WATER CYCLE which is mainly controlled and co-ordinated by the forces of Precipitation and Evaporation.  However, the surface water is usually  not in sufficient quantity for domestic use, let alone industrial unless in places where we have perennial water bodies like streams, lakes, rivers and oceans. Then they can be readily harnessed. But they pose a great danger unless treated adequately.
It is the quest for ample water that made man to begin probing the earth in search of it and it dates back as far the primitive era. But the methods of earth probing and borehole drilling has been greatly modernised.
The problem is that the technology and the processes appears simple (yet it is not), the quacks have gained access into the market with the attendant borehole failures scattered all over the place especially in Nigeria. The government seems to be doing little to curb this menace. The earlier professionals are allowed to take their rightful place, the better – so as to prevent unnecessary but avoidable investment loss.
Geologist, Geophysicists and Geoscientists have the right knowledge of the terrains and they are in a better place to provide the necessary framework for probing the earth, exploration and exploitation of the vast mineral resources.