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In one of my previous posts, I explained explicitly what and what can cause groundwater to be contaminated with Iron, the quantity of Iron (in ppm) that is considered harmful to the body. In this post, we will be taking a look on how best to remove Iron from groundwater. WAYS OF REMOVING IRON FROM GROUNDWATER The best and easiest way out of this quagmire is to look for an alternative water source. But there may be instances where there may be no alternative source of water! In this situation, one has no choice than to face it squarely. üThe easiest removal technique is by aeration and then filtration. After aeration, the rusts become suspended (precipitated) and then are filtered out. üThe second method is by oxidation using Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) or Chlorine dioxide (ClO2).
There is however a lot of water treatment plants designed for this. The manual for this plant should be properly read and understood before use for optima…
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Just like Iron being present in groundwater, Manganese can also be present. Manganese (represented by the symbol ‘Mn’) is also a naturally occurring element. It is among the trace elements required by the body and is usually rare in surface waters but in higher percentage in groundwater. The tolerable amount of Manganese (Mn for short) in drinking water is ≤ 0.05mg/L.
Higher concentrations of Mn is known to stain fabrics and cause offensive taste and odour if drank. It also possess a health challenge. Reticulation pipes are not left out as it clogs the pipes and promotes the growth of bacteria.
It should be noted that the major source of Manganese in groundwater is from Manganese rich rocks (usually in places well known for Manganese mining).
Other sources include: lLeachates from landfills, lIndustrial acid wastes, and even lSewages.
WHAT TO DO? It is always advisable to seek the advise of a Water Engineer or a Hydrologist / Hydrogeologist for proper guide on what to do from time to time…


Have you ever wondered why when you fetched water from your well / borehole and the water appeared ‘clean’ or‘neat’ only for you to notice after few seconds that there are floats in the water that forms a reddish – brown film on the water? You may be asking… but how come? I thought that this water is safe? Does it mean that this water is a waste and unusable? Well, there may be no cause for alarm! WHY??? That reddish – brown film you saw may be Iron. It usually increases turbidity in water. It is likely that the groundwater has been contaminated with Iron (usually Fe2+). But the presence of Iron in water, even in groundwater, is nothing to worry about; except in situations where the concentration to high. Usually, Iron is present in waters we consume, even in bottled waters. Water from the public water systems may have Iron concentration of ≤0.3mg/liter. Naturally, it is rare to see Iron occur in ions (as Fe2+ and Fe3+). It usually forms ores. It reacts with oxygen and sulfur compoun…



Is there really any need for an Environmental assessment at all? By the way, what is an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA for short)? It is an assessment conducted to ascertain the potential effect of a project that is to be sited in a place. The assessment is to appraise whether it will be harmful to the host community or otherwise and the international best practice to adopt. Activities like mining, quarrying, oil exploration, dredging, citing of power plants, nuclear plants and factories, etc, all requires an EIA before taking off. In some cases, EIA can also be carried out for an already existing project. It is sometimes called Environmental Study, Environmental Impact Statement or Environmental Effect Study. History has it that EIA was first introduced in 1969 in the United States of America as an Act. Since then, it has been adopted and fine tuned by increasing number of countries to suit them It is a norm in most countries of the world and it …

Principles and limitations geophysical method of exploration

Geophysics simply means the application of principles of physics in the study of the earth. The application of geophysics is vast. It can be used to study the entire Earth (Global geophysics), or for localized survey of the crust e.g for Engineering purposes. Geophysical survey is broadly classified into two based on the source of energy. 1.Natural field: This uses the electric, magnetic,  electromagnetic and gravitational fields of the Earth 2.Artificial source: Involves the generation of artificial electrical or electromagnetic fields into the earth by a means of a D.C.
Magnetic method is applied when searching for buried magnetite ores because of their high magnetic susceptibility. Electrical method is used when exploring for ground water because rocks resistances differ according to their water saturation levels. Seismic method is used for hydrocarbon exploration. It is worth noting that these methods can be combined in a survey such as in metallic mineral exploration in which ele…


Oil shales is a fine grained sedimentary rock that has Crude oil in it but does not readily give it out except when heated in-situ or mined.
Extraction by mining and transporting it to a heating place for extraction,subjects the entire region mined to geohazards. The ‘pit’ created by the mining will be vast and may not be entirely refilled thereby posing a threat to those living nearby and the ecosystem.
The best and commonest way of extraction of oil from the Oil Shales is by heating it in-situ. This is usually done at temperatures of 425-475oC.  This method is called Pyrolysis. This way, Oil and Gas are driven out from the Kerogen. Oil from Oil Shale is known to contain heavy and radioactive metals. However, this method also posses a threat because, some of the oil, gets leached out and enters the Groundwater thereby polluting the Groundwater.

Oil Shales are predominant in countries like The United States (Utah and Wyoming), Brazil, Argentina, and Northern Germany.

Moh's Mineral Hardness / Scratch Test (Updated)

Moh's Mineral Hardness / Scratch Test

Moh's Mineral Hardness / Scratch Test
Minerals In Decreasing Hardness : Diamond 10
Corundum 9
Chrysoberyl 8.5
Topaz 8
Beryl 7.5 to 8
Spinel 7.5 to 8
Zircon 7.5
Cordierite 7 to 7.5
Staurolite 7 to 7.5
Tourmaline 7 to 7.5
Quartz 7
Garnet 6.5 to 7.5
Jadeite 6.5 to 7
Sillimanite 6.5 to 7.5
Olivine 6.5 to 7
Spodumene 6.5 to 7
Marcasite 6 to 7.5
Cassiterite 6 to 7
Epidote 6 to 7
Zoisite 6 to 7
Nephrite 6 to 6.5
Orthoclase 6 to 6.5
Plagioclase 6 to 6.5
Prehnite 6 to 6.5
Pyrite 6 to 6.5
Rutile 6 to 6.5
Diopside 5.5 to 6.5
Rhodonite 5.5 to 6.5
Arsenopyrite 5.5 to 6
Augite 5.5 to 6
Chromite 5.5 to 6
Hematite 5.5 to 6.5
Nepheline 5.5 to 6
Sodalite 5.5 to 6
Magnetite 5 to 6.5
Enstatite 5 to 6
Hornblende 5 to 6
Ilmenite 5 to 6
Turquoise 5 to 6
Uraninite 5 to 6
Monazite 5 to 5.5
Titanite 5 to 5.5
Apatite 5
Wollastonite 4.5 to 5.5
Kyanite 4.5 to 7
Fluorite 4
Magnesite 3.5 to 5
Pyrrhotite 3.5 to 4.5
Siderite 3.5 to 4.5
Azurite 3.5 to 4
Chalcopyrite 3.5 to 4