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Hey… Just as we celebrate our birthdays to commemorate the day we were born, has it ever occurred to you to ponder on the age of the earth? Don’t you think that there was a day (way back) when the earth was formed? Don’t get it twisted!!! This is no myth. It is a reality. It is REAL!!!

The Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old!!! Sounds absurd??? Well, this figure did not come as a result of fiction or imagination – but by radiometric dating in the early 20th century. Lead in uranium-rich minerals when dated by early scientists,  were able to discover that they were billions of years old. Another pointer to this is that small crystals of Zircon obtained from Jack Hills, Western Australia when dated, was around 4.4 billion years old. One may ask: “How is this possible”? Rocks are aggregate of minerals. Some of these minerals have radioactive elements like Uranium and Thorium. In the process of their decay (radioactive decay), other elements are formed which are st…
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Lead in Drinking / Groundwater

Possible sources of lead in groundwater Places well known for lead-zinc (Pb-zn) deposits are in danger of having their groundwater contaminated with Lead. Lead is a known silent killer especially in infants and children as it has high affinity for Hemoglobin. Another reason it is a silent killer is because it accumulates (bioaccumulation) in the body gradually stealthily. The fatality of lead is that it gets stored in the bones (as Calcium is stored) and becomes part of the body. From there, it gets released directly into the body. Pregnant and nursing women are the most hit because the Calcium which their bodies require for the growth of the fetus and for breast milk production may be mixed with Lead. The detrimental effects of lead are enormous and felt among infants / children, pregnant women and adults. Among the children, these (but not limited to the following) are pronounced: ØAnemia ØSlowed / stunted growth ØPoor body development ØPoor in learning ØNervous disorders ØDeath Among Pregnan…

Sea Level Changes and Its Effect on Groundwater


Sea Level Changes and Its Effect on Groundwater
Sea level fluctuates. It dates back to the Mesozoic era - precisely Triassic Period. However, there are factors responsible for this. The most common of them is the melting of ice sheets.
There are some instances that does not involve the melting of ice sheets because prior to formation of ice sheets, Sea levels had been increasing. This can be attributed to the Earth’s Revolution and tilting. Whenever the tilt is high, the rainfall will be high especially in the higher altitudes. This in turn increases the groundwater levels
It is a usual phenomenon that sea levels impacts directly to the groundwater level. Sea level has an indirect relationship to the groundwater level. Whenever sea level increases, groundwater level decreases and vice versa.
Also, the groundwater level has a direct relationship to the depth (and even size) of rivers and lakes. The depth of rivers and lakes to the surface in a…

White Toothed Tree Mushrooms

I just came across this and decided to share it.
See the source HERE


Photographer: Patti Weeks
Summary Author: Patti Weeks
This white toothed, stalkless mushroom appears to be Climacodon septentrionalis, a parasitic fungus growing near the base of a hardwood tree in an eastern North Carolina urban neighborhood. Many tree mushrooms, which may be lovely sights to a passerby, are evidence to a tree expert of significant disease in the trunk or root system. Some mushrooms appear after a tree has experienced external damage, such as a lawn mower injury or even the encroachment of a curb or street; whereas some fungi can attack already internally weakened trees with no apparent wound. When there's evidence of poor health of an urban area tree, the infected tree must be removed to prevent the spread of the fungi spores by wind or insects (note the flies on the photo) and to minimize the possibility of the weakened tree toppling in wind or storm. This photo was …


In one of my previous posts, I explained explicitly what and what can cause groundwater to be contaminated with Iron, the quantity of Iron (in ppm) that is considered harmful to the body. In this post, we will be taking a look on how best to remove Iron from groundwater. WAYS OF REMOVING IRON FROM GROUNDWATER The best and easiest way out of this quagmire is to look for an alternative water source. But there may be instances where there may be no alternative source of water! In this situation, one has no choice than to face it squarely. üThe easiest removal technique is by aeration and then filtration. After aeration, the rusts become suspended (precipitated) and then are filtered out. üThe second method is by oxidation using Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) or Chlorine dioxide (ClO2).
There is however a lot of water treatment plants designed for this. The manual for this plant should be properly read and understood before use for optima…


Just like Iron being present in groundwater, Manganese can also be present. Manganese (represented by the symbol ‘Mn’) is also a naturally occurring element. It is among the trace elements required by the body and is usually rare in surface waters but in higher percentage in groundwater. The tolerable amount of Manganese (Mn for short) in drinking water is ≤ 0.05mg/L.
Higher concentrations of Mn is known to stain fabrics and cause offensive taste and odour if drank. It also possess a health challenge. Reticulation pipes are not left out as it clogs the pipes and promotes the growth of bacteria.
It should be noted that the major source of Manganese in groundwater is from Manganese rich rocks (usually in places well known for Manganese mining).
Other sources include: lLeachates from landfills, lIndustrial acid wastes, and even lSewages.
WHAT TO DO? It is always advisable to seek the advise of a Water Engineer or a Hydrologist / Hydrogeologist for proper guide on what to do from time to time…


Have you ever wondered why when you fetched water from your well / borehole and the water appeared ‘clean’ or‘neat’ only for you to notice after few seconds that there are floats in the water that forms a reddish – brown film on the water? You may be asking… but how come? I thought that this water is safe? Does it mean that this water is a waste and unusable? Well, there may be no cause for alarm! WHY??? That reddish – brown film you saw may be Iron. It usually increases turbidity in water. It is likely that the groundwater has been contaminated with Iron (usually Fe2+). But the presence of Iron in water, even in groundwater, is nothing to worry about; except in situations where the concentration to high. Usually, Iron is present in waters we consume, even in bottled waters. Water from the public water systems may have Iron concentration of ≤0.3mg/liter. Naturally, it is rare to see Iron occur in ions (as Fe2+ and Fe3+). It usually forms ores. It reacts with oxygen and sulfur compoun…